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Definition

Object-oriented programming (OOP), is a model of software programming that revolves around objects. This model separates data into objects (data field) and describes object contents through the declarations of classes (methods).

These OOP features are available:
Encapsulation: Because each object's implementation and state are hidden behind clearly defined boundaries, it makes the program structure more manageable.
Polymorphism is the term for abstract entities that can be implemented in many ways.
Inheritance refers to the hierarchical arrangement and implementation fragments.

Object-oriented programming facilitates simplified programming. It is reusable, refactorable, extensible, and maintenance-friendly.

OOP has been the preferred programming model for more than a decade. OOP's modular design allows programmers to create software in smaller chunks than large numbers of sequential code.

OOP has many great advantages. Objects and definitions can scale without finite limitations. Separating data and methods prevents common problems in older linear programming languages. A bug in linear code can cause a lot of difficult-to-trace errors. OOP programs, which separate data and methods, are not vulnerable to these proliferated errors.

OOP languages that are popular include Java, the C family of languages, and Python institute in Delhi.

Scala, Ruby, and Eiffel are all OOP languages.

Inheritance

The process by which one object acquires the property of another is called inheritance. The inheritance process makes it possible to manage information in a hierarchical manner.

The most common keyword when talking about inheritance would be extended or implements. These words will determine whether an object is IS-A type or not. These keywords can be used to make an object have the properties of another.

Abstraction

Abstraction is the ability to abstract a class in OOP. Abstraction refers to the ability to make a class abstract in OOP. The class's functionality is not lost, and all fields, methods, and constructors can be accessed the same way. It is impossible to create an instance of the abstract class.

A class that is abstract and cannot be instantiated is not of much use unless it's a subclass. This is how abstract classes are created during the design phase. Although a parent class has the same functionality as a collection of child classes, the parent class is too abstract to be used by itself.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism refers to the ability of an object's form to take on multiple forms. Polymorphism is most commonly used in OOP when a parent object reference is used to refer to a child object.

A Java object that passes more than one ISA test is polymorphic. All Java objects can pass the IS-A tests for both their type and class Object.

It is vital to understand that a reference variable is the only way to access an object. A reference variable cannot be more than one type. The type of a reference variable cannot be changed once it is declared.

If the reference variable is not declared final, it can be assigned to other objects. The object can be invoked using the method it is assigned to, depending on its type.
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Refer to any object or subtype of the declared type of a reference variable. A reference variable can also be declared as an interface or class type.